Community-based monitoring system

The Community-based Monitoring System methodology (CBMS) was used and supported by PEP from 2002 to 2020. This methodology is now managed exclusively by the CBMS Network Office at the Angelo King Institute for Economic and Business Studies in Manila, Philippines.

The CBMS methodology aims to provide disaggregated data for multidimensional poverty analysis. CBMS data helps improve policy formulation, program targeting, and impact monitoring, while empowering communities.

Using the CBMS methodology involves the following research activities:

  • Design and pilot test of community-based monitoring system to generate household and individual level data 
  • Development and pilot test of indicators 
  • Micro level analysis using CBMS indicators and data for various thematic areas including (but not limited to):
    • Multidimensional Poverty Measurement and Analysis
    • Monitoring the millennium development goals (MDGs)/sustainable development goals (SDGs)
    • Local planning and budgeting
    • Vulnerability Risk Mapping
    • Providing social protection in the informal sector
    • Youth employment and entrepreneurship
CBMS generates disaggregated data and indicators relating to:
  • Income and livelihood
  • Education
  • Health and Nutrition
  • Housing
  • Access to Basic Services and Facilities
  • Access to Programs
  • Political/Commmunity participation
  • Migration
  • Climate change
  • Disaster Preparedness
  • Security/Peace and Order
  • Other community-specific indicators

Find out more in the CBMS Brochure.


Further inquiries about the CBMS Network may be forwarded to:

Community-Based Monitoring System (CBMS) Network Office
DLSU Angelo King Institute for Economic and Business Studies
10th Floor Angelo King International Centre
Estrada Corner Arellano Streets, Malate
Manila 1004, Philippines
Tel:  (632) 8526-2067  or (632) 8230-5100 loc. 2461
Fax : (632) 8526-2067


Facebook Page and Group:

CBMS country projects and partners

CBMS has been developed and pilot tested in selected sites in 29 countries in Africa, Asia, and North and South America. See list of countries and partners below.

It has also been widely adopted by local government units in the Philippines, as a tool for improving local governance and implementing programs that address key thematic concerns.

Country Local partner institution


Instituto de Economic - Universidad Naciona del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires


Bangladesh Academy for Rural Development


l'Institut National de la Statistique et de l'Analyse Economique


Fundacion ARU

Botswana University of Botswana
Burkina Faso University of Ouagadougou, CEDRES
Burundi Université du Burundi
Cambodia Cambodia Development Research Institute
Cambodia National Institute of Statistics
Ethiopia Arsi University
Ethiopia Haramaya University
Ghana Centre for Policy Analysis
Ghana Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) - Science and Technology Policy Research Institute (STEPRI)
Haiti Center for International, Economic and Social Studies and Research (CHERIES)
Indonesia SMERU Research Institute
Kenya University of Nairobi
Kenya African Institute for Health and Development
Lao PDR Department of Statistics, Ministry of Planning and Investment 
Nicaragua Nitlapan, Universidad Centro Americana
Niger Observatoire National de la Pauvreté et du Développement Humain Durable (ONAPAD)
Nigeria Department of Agricultural Economic, University of Nigeria
Pakistan Pakistan Institute of Development Economics
Pakistan Research Analytics International (Private) Limited
Peru Centro de Estudios y Promoción del Desarrollo
Philippines De La Salle University - Angelo King Institute for Economic and Business Studies
South Africa Center for Rural Development and Poverty Alleviation, University of Venda
Tanzania Institute of Rural Development Planning (IRDP)
Togo Centre de Recherche et de Formation en Economie et Gestion (CERFEG) of the Universite de Lome
Uganda Development Research and Training
Vietnam Socio-Economic Development Centre
Zambia Zambia Research Development Centre

Moreover, the Network had also supported the dissemination of related CBMS initiatives under other IDRC national projects in Senegal, Nepal, and Sri Lanka.


Rationale for CBMS Work

CBMS is one of the tools developed in the early 1990s to provide policymakers and program implementers with a good information base for tracking the impacts of macroeconomic reforms and various policy shocks. It is an organized way of collecting information at the local level for use of local government units, national government agencies, non-government organizations, civil society, and development partner agencies for planning, program implementation, and monitoring.

CBMS attempts to build and strengthen the capacity of planners and program implementers at the national and local levels for an improved and more transparent system of resource allocation and governance. A major objective of CBMS is to assist in poverty reduction. In so doing, there are other corollary benefits achieved like building the capacities of local government units, increasing gender equity, and eliciting early warning signs of crisis.

Due to the growing number of countries that implement and intend to implement the CBMS, a regional coordinating body tasked to facilitate the development and utilization of the CBMS for policymaking and governance was created. This coordinating body is now known as the CBMS International Network Coordinating Team.


Core Programme of the CBMS Network  

1.       Research

The CBMS Network provides support to researchers in developing countries in partnership with national and/or local stakeholders to develop, pilot-test, and institutionalize a community-based poverty monitoring system. Current priority research themes under the Policy Analysis for Growth and Employment (PAGE)-CBMS research program are:

  • Gender inequalities and women empowerment
  • Financial inclusion and entrepreneurship
  • Agricultural investments and labor productivity
  • Youth unemployment
  • Monitoring the SDGs

Earlier CBMS research work has also been initiated by the Network in line with the following:

  • New CBMS methodologies and instruments
  • Composite poverty indicators
  • Multidimensional Poverty Analysis through CBMS
  • Program and Project impact analysis
  • Use of CBMS for Program Targeting
  • CBMS for local governance
  • Gender-responsive budgeting
  • Localizing the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)
  • Support for local government for environmental management using CBMS
  • Monitoring impacts of shocks (food and fuel crisis, global financial crisis)

Through a competitive CBMS research grants program managed by the PEP-CBMS Network Office based at AKI-DLSU in Manila, the Network provides funding of up to US$ 50,000 to national or local institutions in developing countries for varying phases of CBMS work. Support provided to CBMS research partners extends to their participation in various PEP-organized capacity-building workshops as well as in international policy fora and conferences, dissemination of country project findings in PEP publications and website, and peer-review of on-going research work.

2.       Dissemination and Advocacy

Conferences, workshops and field/study visits
The Network provides support for the dissemination of findings of research partners through the organization of national and international policy conferences, general meetings, and workshops.  These activities are deemed vital in disseminating the findings of the research network to its stakeholders and getting feedback, fostering technical collaboration with current research and development partners, and in establishing linkages with new partners.

CBMS policy conferences focus on the dissemination of research findings with regard to emerging development issues and concerns.  The earlier conference tackled issues and findings relating to localizing the millennium development goals, improving local governance and accountability, and in scaling up poverty reduction initiatives.

Workshops, on the other hand, involve interactive lectures, discussions and hands-on training exercises on topics relating to multi-dimensional poverty analysis, panel data analysis and poverty mapping utilizing methodologies and instruments developed under the CBMS Network.  These activities are intended to further build capacities of researchers in refining their on-going CBMS work.

PEP through its PEP-CBMS Network Office based in Manila supports the preparation, publication and dissemination of a quarterly newsletter of the CBMS Network. The newsletter features highlights of recent research findings of CBMS country projects, snapshots of completed, on-going and upcoming network activities.  In addition, technical and financial support is provided by the network for the publication of CBMS books, brochures, posters, and poverty maps.

The network also supports the development and maintenance of the PEP-website ( which stores CBMS-related references and updates on the activities of the Network and facilitates sharing of information among network members and to the general public. Work is on-going for the development of the on-line CBMS-poverty database.

Video Documentation
The dissemination of lessons learned, good practices, and findings on the implementation and use of CBMS by research partners and stakeholders are also done through video documentation. To date, videos on the CBMS experiences in the Philippines and in Bangladesh are now accessible to the public on-line through the PEP web-site.

3.       Networking and Technical Collaboration with Government and Non-Government Institutions

Networking is a vital component of the PEP work agenda. Over the years, the PEP-CBMS Network Office has collaborated not only with research and academic institutions but with national and local stakeholders and international development agencies in the conduct of its research activities.  These collaborations have not only ensured that the PEP-CBMS research addresses emerging development concerns and issues but has likewise generated financial contributions and advocacy support for scaling up CBMS initiatives within developing countries where CBMS is being implemented.

Part of its networking activities, is the provision of technical assistance to government and non-government institutions, individual researchers and other interest groups concerned with the development and institutionalization of local monitoring systems for tracking poverty and other related applications of CBMS. Technical support of the Network ranges from the conduct of a series of orientation seminars, lectures and hands-on workshops on CBMS data collection, processing and analysis, poverty mapping and data-base building, post-workshop mentoring/coaching on CBMS related research initiatives and applications until the dissemination of CBMS-related findings and policy recommendations.

Highlights of CBMS Work

Since 2002, PEP-supported CBMS research initiatives have resulted to the development of local poverty monitoring systems, up to date and more disaggregated and useful data for poverty analysis, and steered greater participation of local stakeholders for needs-responsive program design, more focused targeting. Furthermore, said projects also provided avenues for the development of improved mechanisms for impact–monitoring and evaluation of various poverty reduction programs and development initiatives.

CBMS work has complemented the growing demand for local poverty statistics from various stakeholders (e.g. national and local planners, members of the academe and the research community, and development partners) in many developing countries particularly to improve poverty reduction initiatives, and to monitor poverty conditions of various sectors overtime. With the data generated from the local monitoring systems developed and refined under PEP, developing country researchers were able to empirically show the great potential of local level statistics as a vital tool in the design of poverty reduction programs, targeting of its beneficiaries and in program-impact monitoring. The CBMS Network's research initiatives were able to illustrate the importance of the customization of research methodologies in the context of the existing institutional arrangements and emerging issues within developing countries as well as involvement of key stakeholders in the process of the development of the tools to better influence policymaking and program implementation.


CBMS-related Videos


CBMS Policy Outreach and Dissemination


CBMS Background Papers/Historical References

  • CBMS Overview
  • CBMS Country Projects
  • Other CBMS Background Papers

Philippines Lamberte, M. Llanto G., Orbeta, A., and Lapar, L. (1991). Micro Impacts of Macroeconomic Adjustment Policies (MIMAP): Framework and Review of Related Literature. MIMAP Research Paper No. 1. (Also available at the IDRC Website) Florentino R. and Pedro R. (1992). Monitoring the Micro Impacts of Macroeconomic Adjustment Policies (MIMAP). (Also available at the PIDS Website) Reyes, C. and Alba, I. (1994). Assessment of Community-Based Systems Monitoring Household Welfare. (Also avaiable at the PIDS Website) Reyes, C. (1996). Monitoring Systems for Poverty Tracking. MIMAP Research Paper No. 30. (Also available at the IDRC Website) Reyes, C. and Ilarde, K. (1996). A Community Based Monitoring System for Poverty TrackingMIMAP Research Paper No. 24. (Also available at the IDRC Website) Reyes, C. and Ilarde, K. (1996). Are They Meeting Their Minimum Basic Needs? (A Profile of Bgy. Masuso and Bgy. Real de Cacarong. MIMAP Research Paper No. 25. (Also available at the IDRC Website) Reyes, C. and Ilarde, K. (1998). Indicators for Monitoring Poverty. MIMAP Research Paper No. 37. (Also available at the IDRC Website) Constantino, W. (1999). A Survey of Poverty Related Researches and Monitoring Systems in the Philippines. MIMAP Research Paper No. 42. (Also available at the IDRC Website) Bangladesh Mujeri, M. Local Level Poverty Monitoring System in Bangladesh. (Also available at the IDRC Website) Burkina Faso MIMAP. Experimental Research Project on Poverty Monitoring System (PMS) Phase II. (Also available at the IDRC Website) Nepal Sharma, S. (2001)Poverty and Development Monitoring System and Decentralized Planning in Nepal. (Also available at the IDRC Website)  Vietnam Vu Tuan Anh (1998). Rural Poverty Monitoring Survey in Vietnam. (Also available at the IDRC Website) Asselin, L.M, and Vu, T.A. A Multidimensional Poverty Monitoring: A Methodology and Implementation in Vietnam. (Also available at the IDRC Website) 


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