contribution to literature and policy contribution of the study

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lucius cassim
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Joined: Fri Jun 08, 2018 9:19 am

contribution to literature and policy contribution of the study

Post by lucius cassim » Mon Jun 11, 2018 6:14 am

This is a very nice baseline report and it has been well presented.


A. Contribution to Literature:

How will this research contribute to the current literature? What literature contribution is it bringing, bearing in mind the following facts:

1. Evidence from the more restricted literature from developing and middle-income also shows a strong positive link between access to childcare and maternal labour market outcomes.


According to Barros et al(2011):

In Latin America, there is a small but growing body of evidence on the impact of specific childcare and pre-school programs. Evaluations of policies and programs in Argentina (Berlinski and Galiani 2005), Colombia (Attanasio and Vera-Hernandez 2004, Peña-Parga and Glassman 2004, Ribero 2003), and Guatemala (Quisumbing 2005) all show a strong positive relationship between access to child care and female labor force participation. For instance, Berlinski and Galiani (2007, 2009) evaluate the expansion of pre-primary school facilities (targeted to children 3 to 5 years of age) in Argentina and find a positive impact on maternal employment. Similarly, Attanasio and Vera-Hernandez (2004) find large positive effects on female labor supply and child nutritional status in their evaluation of a community nursery program in Colombia.

2. Impacts on child development and family outcomes may be ambiguous depending on the implications of time spent in child care versus time spent with the parents.


According to Barros et al(2011):

Baker, Gruber and Milligan (2008) find evidence of negative effects on a variety of child outcomes, parenting, and parent outcomes. Child outcomes are worse for a variety of parent reported measures, such as anxiety, aggressiveness, motor and social skills, child health status, and illness. Measures of parenting and family function are also negatively affected, and there is some evidence of deterioration in parental health and a reduction in parental relationship quality


What is the state of knowledge in Mongolia with regard to this issue? Is this the first study of its kind in the Country? If so, how does it compare with similar studies done elsewhere “how does it fit in?” .Have there have been similar studies in the country (experimental or non-experimental? If so, how does this study fit in?


1. Ricardo Paes de Barros, Pedro Olinto, Trine Lunde, Mirela Carvalho(2011) , The Impact of Access to Free Childcare on Women's Labor Market Outcomes: Evidence from a Randomized Trial in Low-income Neighborhoods of Rio de Janeiro ,Paper Prepared for the 2011 World Bank Economists’ Forum March, 2011

2. Jef L Leroy(2011) ; The impact of daycare programs on child health, nutrition and development in developing Countries: a systematic review

Theoretical Framework is not clear cut:
Explain clearly the mechanism through which free childcare may/may not improve labour market outcomes and child health

Extending the “Ruel’s framework” by Ruel (2008) could help. While the framework refers explicitly to the mother as the primary care giver, it could be applicable to cases where the primary caregiver is a non-household member


NOTE:As mentioned by Barros et al(2011): Publicly financed and/or provided child are justified under grounds of redistribution or positive externalities. Governments may decide to subsidize child care and early childhood education if social gains surpass the private gains of families demanding services. On the other hand, governments may decide to subsidize child care costs to low income family to ensure equal opportunity to child development and parents’ career

In either case, public subsidies may come at a cost of higher taxes and therefore reduced economic efficiency. Moreover, if governments not only fund but also provide child care services, it is possible that such policies “crowd out” the private provision of care, with no net increase in child care use or labor supply to the market. This would imply in a higher fiscal cost since recovery of taxes from higher incomes generated by beneficiaries would be smaller.

Your research is addressing the following questions:
• How large is the increase in employement of mothers due to the increased access to free child care?
• What effect does any change in child care (and associated increases in labour market outcomes) have on child outcomes?
Therefore, to have relevant policy recommendations: your research could also address (if possible) the following :
• What does the increase in labor force participation, if any, suggest about the net cost of the policy (subsidies offered minus new tax revenue collected)?

• Fourth, does public provision crowd out private provision?

Thank you and all the best

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