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Posted: Thu Sep 05, 2019 6:19 pm
by frmarche
Thanks for the presentation. I would like to share with you a few comments.
One of your objective is to identify factors restricting women’s participation in rural farm and non-farm activities. You have some hypotheses you want to test (i.e. land access, education), but I think that there are non-economic factors as well, i.e. cultural norms, that are difficult to observe that constraint access to those activities to women. I am not sure you can take into account those factors, but I think that they should be discussed in the project.
‘Non-farm activities’ is quite a general definition that includes different kind of activities, from simple crop processing and selling to more complex and more remunerative activities. I suggest providing a context specific definition of non-farm activities in the proposal.
The economic literature points out the existence of barriers to diversification in non-farm activities, some authors show that poorest households are often not able to engage in non-farm activities because of those barriers. When estimating the earning equation, you should consider that.
I agree with Flaubert when he casts some doubts on the possibility to model diversification strategy in non-farm activities an individual choice. Two reasons: 1. Women are not always able to take autonomous decisions with respect to the participation in the labor market, or to the sector of employment; 2. The diversification choice is often a household strategy, especially when it is determined by push factor (i.e. household members can decide to send one or more members work out of the farm while the others keep working on the family farm).
I wonder if the migration issue should be integrated in your analysis, because migration is another option households may have when forced to search for livelihoods strategies different from farm work. Migration, temporary or not, can be an alternative to non-farm work.